Thyroid and Cardiovascular Disease: A Focused Review on the Impact of Hyperthyroidism in Heart Failure

Rafay Khan, Saad Sikanderkhel, Junhong Gui, Abdul-Razaq Adeniyi, Kimberly O’Dell, Marc Erickson, Juan Malpartida, Zarmina Mufti, Taiba Khan, Harris Mufti, Saif Aldeen Al-Adwan, Diana Alvarez, Joshua Davis, Joseph Pendley, Dharmendra Patel

Abstract


The association between thyroid hormones and cardiovascular conditions has been well studied, specifically, the effects of hypothyroidism on cardiomyopathy, and hyperthyroidism with arrhythmias. Nonetheless, an explicit correlation between hyperthyroidism and cardiomyopathy has yet to be established. Medical databases MEDLINE and PubMed were accessed and queried as primary sources for data acquisition. Search criteria consisted of “hyperthyroidism”, “heart failure”, and “thyroid and cardiovascular system”, which allowed the retrieval of relevant and recent works. From these sources, a consensus was developed and employed to yield an updated review of the etiology of heart failure in the setting of hyperthyroidism. It is rare for patients with hyperthyroidism to remain in a chronic hyperthyroid state, making it difficult to analyze subsequent long-term effects on the cardiovascular system. Related to heart failure, some studies have demonstrated no change in ejection fraction, while others have shown an acute change along with diastolic dysfunction, with or without an underlying rhythm abnormality. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the mechanism driving such cardiac dysfunction, and whether it is due to vascular changes, tachyarrhythmias, or myocyte remodeling and fibrosis. The intent of this review article is to improve our understanding of how a hyperthyroid state affects cardiovascular function. An enhanced understanding of the effects on cardiovascular physiology will afford physicians the ability to provide more comprehensive care in consideration of both endocrine and cardiovascular pathologies.




Cardiol Res. 2020;11(2):68-75
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr1034

Keywords


Heart failure; Thyroid; Hyperthyroidism; Cardiovascular

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