Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein for Risk Prediction of Acute Coronary Syndrome

Abhishek Singh, Rajendra Puhan, Akshyaya Pradhan, Wahid Ali, Rishi Sethi


Background: Elevated Low density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels have been traditionally associated with development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). As LDL-cholesterol levels are not always raised in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, sd-LDL is an emerging risk factor. The purpose of the present study was tri-fold. Firstly, it aimed to investigate the association of sd-LDL as a risk factor in ACS patients. Secondly, it aimed to correlate the presence of sd-LDL with severity of coronary artery disease as determined by coronary angiography. Lastly, it aimed to correlate the presence of sd-LDL with short-term outcomes.

Methods: This was a prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional, case-control study conducted over a 1-year study duration. Patients above the age of 18 years diagnosed with ACS within 24 h of admission were studied. Blood samples were collected after all patients had undergone coronary angiography and sd-LDL levels were measured.

Results: ACS patients had significantly higher sd-LDL levels than non-ACS patients (16.10 ± 1.42 mg/dL vs. 12.67 ± 0.71 mg/dL, P = 0.036). Males had significantly higher sd-LDL levels than females (16.79 ± 1.55 mg/dl vs. 10.77 ± 2.62 mg/dl, P=0.047). Patients with non-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) involvement had significantly higher sd-LDL levels compared to patients with LAD involvement (21.92 ± 3.55 mg/dL vs. 14.03 ± 1.35 mg/dL, P = 0.007).

Conclusion: These results suggest that sd-LDL is a risk factor for the development of ACS in an Indian population.

Cardiol Res. 2021;12(4):251-257


Acute coronary syndrome; Coronary artery disease; Left anterior descending coronary artery; Major adverse cardiac events; Small density low-density lipoprotein

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Cardiology Research, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2829 (print), 1923-2837 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.

This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.