The Triply Twisted Heart: Cyanosis in an Adult With Situs Inversus, Levocardia, Double Outlet Right Ventricle, and Malposition of the Great Arteries

Jaime Alfonso M. Aherrera, Jose Donato A. Magno, Celia Catherine C. Uy, Lauro L. Abrahan IV, Helga F. Sta. Maria, Rodel R. Buitizon, Raul D. Jara


We present a case of a 19-year-old female presenting with cyanosis since birth. The major anomaly demonstrated was a “triply twisted heart” with a balanced physiology, allowing her to survive into adulthood. Non-invasive imaging was done using 2D and real-time 3D (or 4D) echocardiography with multi-slice imaging from 4D volume datasets. Findings were confirmed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A segmental approach revealed atrial and visceral situs inversus, levocardia, atrioventricular discordance, and ventriculoarterial discordance. Both the aorta and pulmonary artery were malposed and arise from the right ventricle (double outlet right ventricle or DORV). There was also a complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD) associated with a functional single atrium and a functional univentricle (single ventricle). Other findings include a severe pulmonic stenosis (PS), preserved right and left ventricular systolic function, and a normal pulmonary arterial pressure. She also had a persistent left superior vena cava (SVC) that drains into the morphologic right atrium, while the right-sided SVC drains into the morphologic left atrium. A multidisciplinary team deemed that management be palliative. She is on regular follow-up at our clinics for non-invasive monitoring. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in an adult with this combination of anomalies.

Cardiol Res. 2015;6(6):362-366


Malposition of the great arteries; Atrioventricular septal defect; Situs inversus

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Cardiology Research, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2829 (print), 1923-2837 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.             
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.

This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.