Clinical Profile of Patients With Chronically Occluded Coronary Arteries: A Single Center Study

Vikrant Deshmukh, Mukund Vasantrao Phutane, Kalyan Munde, Narendra Bansal

Abstract


Background: A chronic total occlusion (CTO) is defined as an angiographically documented or clinically suspected complete interruption of antegrade coronary flow (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI)-0 flow) of greater than 3 months standing. Coronary CTOs represent the most technically challenging lesion subset that interventional cardiologists face. CTOs are identified in up to one third of patients referred for coronary angiography and remain seriously undertreated with percutaneous techniques. Decision to treat or not to treat a CTO is always confusing. This is an attempt to provide clinical profile of patients having totally occluded coronary arteries and their natural history.

Methods: The observational study was carried out in tertiary health center in Mumbai. Totally 117 patients who had CTO on angiography were selected. Their clinical presentation and angiography correlation was done and results were analyzed.

Results: Out of a total of 117 patients, 86 (73.50 %) were males, female 31(26%). All of the patients studied were above 40 years. Age group 40 - 49 years had 25 (21.36%) patients, 50 - 59 years had 32 (27.35%), 60 - 69 years had 43 (36.75%), > 70 years had 17 (14.52%) patients. Smoking as a risk factor was present in 32 (27.35%), tobacco in 45 (38.46%), alcohol in six (5%), no addictions in 35 (29.91%) patients. Diabetes in 63 (53.84%), hypertension in 78 (66.67%) patients, both were present in 49 (41.88%), dyslipidemia in 37 (31.62%) patients. Sixty-three (53.84 %) patients presented with unstable angina (UA)/non ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), 32 (27.35%) with chronic stable angina (CSA), ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 22 (18.80%). History of prior myocardial infarction (MI) was present in 36 (30.76%), prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in nine (7.6%), prior percutaneous intervention (PCI) in 18 (15.38%). Triple vessel disease (TVD) in 38 (32.47%), double vessel disease (DVD) in 53 (45.29%), single vessel disease (SVD) in 26 (22.22%) patients. Left anterior descending artery (LAD) CTO was present in 40 (34.18%), right coronary artery (RCA) in 61 (52.14%), left circumflex artery (LCX) obtuse marginal (OM) in 16 (13.67%) patients.

Conclusions: Patients having CTO of coronary arteries are mostly above age of 40 years. Most common age group was 60 - 69 years. It was most common in males than females. Tobacco chewing was more commonly associated followed by smoking. Hypertension and diabetes were strongly associated with CTO. Most patients presented with unstable angina/NSTEMI followed by chronic stable angina. Old MI was present in one third of patients. Most common artery to be affected was RCA followed by LAD.




Cardiol Res. 2018;9(5):279-283
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/cr743w


Keywords


CTO; Coronary artery disease; Clinical profile

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