Relationships Between Skin Autofluorescence and Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index in Japanese Male Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

Takashi Hitsumoto


Background: An autofluorescence (AF) reader can be used to noninvasively measure tissues that accumulated advanced glycation end-products to diagnose skin AF. This study aimed to clarify the clinical significance of skin AF as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Japanese male patients with metabolic syndrome using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as a marker of arterial function.

Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 261 Japanese male patients with metabolic syndrome without history of cardiovascular disease (mean age, 58 ± 7 years (mean ± standard deviation)). Associations between skin AF and various clinical parameters including CAVI were examined.

Results: Skin AF was significantly positively correlated with CAVI (r = 0.40, P < 0.001). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that skin AF (β = 0.18, P = 0.002) was selected as an independent subordinate factor for CAVI. Meanwhile, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a marker of insulin resistance, smoking habits and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as an inflammation marker were independent variables for either CAVI or skin AF as a subordinate factor. According to the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis and results of previous reports that determined CAVI of ≥ 9.0 as a diagnostic criterion for vascular failure, skin AF of > 2.7 arbitrary unit is the optimal cut-off point for discriminating high CAVI (area under the curve = 0.718, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Findings in this study indicate that skin AF may be an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease in Japanese male patients with metabolic syndrome. In addition, the risk value of skin AF was considered as higher than 2.7 arbitrary unit. Further investigations in a large number of prospective studies, including intervention therapies, are required to validate the results in this study.

Cardiol Res. 2019;10(3):172-180


Skin autofluorescence; Cardio-ankle vascular index; Metabolic syndrome; Insulin resistance; Smoking; Inflammation; Male gender; Japanese

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