Incidence, Characteristics and Atherosclerotic Involvement of Coronary Artery Anomalies in Adult Population Undergoing Catheter Coronary Angiography

Navdeep Singh Sidhu, Gagandeep Singh Wander, Anmol Monga, Arashdeep Kaur


Background: Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are rare disorders of coronary anatomy with varied clinical presentations. There are widespread geographic variations in incidence and patterns of these anomalies, with limited data from North Indian population. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the incidence, characteristics and atherosclerotic involvement of CAAs in adult population undergoing catheter coronary angiography.

Methods: Serial coronary angiographies performed at our institution over a period of 2.5 years (from January 2017 to June 2019) were retrospectively analyzed. We identified patients with anomalous coronaries and studied their clinical characteristics and angiographic profiles.

Results: Among 3,233 coronary angiograms analyzed, CAAs were found in 99 patients with an incidence of 3.06%. Mean age of the patients was 56.2 ± 12.9 years (range: 20 - 86 years), with 74.75% being males and 25.25% females. Split right coronary artery (RCA) was the most common coronary anomaly, being seen in 27 patients; with an angiographic incidence of 0.84%. Dual left anterior descending artery (LAD) was the second most common anomaly and was seen in 22 cases with an angiographic incidence of 0.68%. Absent left main trunk was noted in 14 patients (0.43%). Ectopic origin of RCA from left sinus was seen in 12 patients (0.37%), while ectopic origin of RCA from ascending aorta was seen in four patients (0.12%). Ectopic origin of left circumflex artery (LCX) from right sinus or RCA was noted in 13 patients (0.40%). One patient (0.03%) had a superdominant LAD supplying the posterior descending artery (PDA). Coronary artery fistulae were seen in six patients (0.18%). Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was seen in 89 of 268 (33.21%) normal vessels, whereas it was seen in 56 of 114 (49.12%) of anomalous vessels. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: The incidence of CAAs in our study was slightly higher than many of the previous angiographic series. The patterns of coronary anomalies in our study were different from most of the previous studies. Our study had higher incidence of atherosclerotic involvement of anomalous vessels as compared to normal vessels.

Cardiol Res. 2019;10(6):358-368


Coronary artery anomalies; Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery disease; Left anterior descending artery; Left circumflex artery; Right coronary artery; Left main trunk; Split right coronary artery; Dual left anterior descending artery

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