An Update on the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Cardiorenal Syndrome

Rupesh Raina, Nikhil Nair, Ronith Chakraborty, Lena Nemer, Rahul Dasgupta, Kenneth Varian


Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) encompasses various disorders of the heart and kidneys; dysfunction of one organ leads to acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. It incorporates the intersection of heart-kidney interactions across several mediums, hemodynamically, through the alterations in neurohormonal markers, and increased venous and renal pressure, all of which are hallmarks of its clinical phenotypes. This article explores the epidemiology, pathology, classification and treatment of each type of CRS.

Cardiol Res. 2020;11(2):76-88


Cardiorenal syndrome; Chronic kidney disease; Heart failure

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