The Impact of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

Ali Rahman, Sura Alqaisi, Sunil E. Saith, Rana Alzakhari, Ralph Levy


Background: Since 2005, the cardioprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have garnered attention. The cardioprotective effect could be an added benefit to the use of GLP-1 RA. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarizing observational studies that recruited type 2 diabetes individuals with fewer cardiovascular (CV) events before enrolling in the research.

Methods: Systematically, the databases were searched for observational studies reporting compound CV events and deaths in type 2 diabetics without having the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) compared to other glucose-lowering agents. A meta-analysis was carried out using random effects model to estimate the overall hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies were found eligible for the systematic review including a total of 64,452 patients receiving either liraglutide (three studies) or exenatide (two studies).

Results: The pooled HR for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) and extended MACE was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.65 - 0.93, I2 = 68%) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89 - 0.98, I2 = 29%), respectively. The pooled HR for hospitalization due to heart failure (HHF) and occurrence of HF was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77 - 0.91, I2 = 79%) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75 - 0.94, I2 = 95%), respectively. For stroke, GLP-1 RA was associated with a significant risk reduction of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75 - 0.98, I2 = 81%). There was no significant myocardial infarction (MI) risk reduction with GLP-1 RA. As for all-cause mortality, the pooled HR for the occurrence of all-cause mortality was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76 - 0.88, I2 = 0%). The pooled HR for the occurrence of CV death was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65 - 0.85, I2 = 38%). GLP-1 RA therapy was associated with a significantly low risk of MACE, extended MACE, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality. Except for MACE, the heterogenicity among the studies was low.

Conclusion: We conclude that GLP-1 RA is associated with a low risk of CV events composites and mortality. The findings support the cardioprotective effect of GLP-1 RA.

Cardiol Res. 2023;14(4):250-260


Diabetes mellitus; GLP-1 receptor agonist; Exenatide; Liraglutide; Cardiovascular events; MACE

Full Text: HTML PDF Suppl1

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Cardiology Research, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2829 (print), 1923-2837 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.

This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.